File: README.md

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File: README.md
Role: Documentation
Content type: text/markdown
Description: Documentation
Class: TonTon PHP Singleton Trait New Generation
Create class objects in a limited number of times
Author: By
Last change: First stable Selecton version.
Date: 7 months ago
Size: 5,974 bytes
 

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TonTon PHP

PHP Composer CI

Singleton patterns are amongst the most used structures in PHP. Together with that, some similar constructions, such as the Multiton, appear in almost every new PHP project. However, singletons could be much more. Initially, they don't really need to be inserted in any class, several times. Some people use abstracts, but does it make sense, extending a class which is just a support, by definition?

Also, some patterns could be deriving from the Singleton, beyond the Multiton, so that is what we are proposing here:

  • First, use Singletons and similar as traits, to avoid duplicates and repetition while coding
  • Second, create new and different subpatterns that can elevate the initial purpose of a Singleton to something even more useful

Installation

TonTon is available as PHP library, being installed through Composer.

Usage

Well, for the first two traits, "using" them is pretty much what you need to do. As traits, once they are required with Composer, they can easily be added to any class through the use keyword inside the class. The usage is quite simple - let's consider a class named EasyPeasy:


require __DIR__ . '/vendor/autoload.php';

class EasyPeasy {

	use \TonTon\Singleton;

	protected function construct() {

		echo 'Easy Peasy!';
	}
}

/* So, if we want to instantiate this class, then we need to use a
   static method. Any new attempts of instantiating the class will
   result in nothing (if we try to use the static method again) or 
   a fatal error, if we try to create an instance through the "new"
   keyword.*/

$ep = EasyPeasy::instance(); // Valid instance
$rt = EasyPeasy::instance(); // Nothing happens, as an instance already exists

$er = new EasyPeasy(); // Fatal error


But the Singleton here is just the tip of the iceberg. If you want, by any reason, to have multiple instances of your class, but all of them need to be flagged (let's say one for dealing with queries, and other for logging processes), you'd prefer to use a Multiton instead. The approach will be basically the same:


require __DIR__ . '/vendor/autoload.php';

class EasyPeasy {

	use \TonTon\Multiton;

	protected function construct() {

		echo 'Easy Peasy!';
	}
}

/* So, if we want to instantiate this class, then we need to use a
   static method. Any new attempts of instantiating the class will
   work if using the static method instance(), with a $key as argument
   or a fatal error, if we try to create an instance through the "new"
   keyword.*/

$ep = EasyPeasy::instance('normal'); // Instance 1
$rt = EasyPeasy::instance('log'); // Instance 2

$er = new EasyPeasy(); // Fatal error


But let's say, besides using many instances of that class, you want the number of instances to be limit, and you'd like to set this limit while creating your class. That can now be done using the Limiton:


require __DIR__ . '/vendor/autoload.php';

class EasyPeasy {

	use \TonTon\Limiton;

	protected function construct() {

		$this->setLimit(1); // Limit set to 1, so it works like a Singleton,
							// but needs a $key for the new instance. Default
							// value is 2.
		echo 'Easy Peasy!';
	}
}

/* So, if we want to instantiate this class, then we need to use a
   static method. Any new attempts of instantiating the class will
   work if using the static method instance(), with a $key as argument
   or a fatal error, if we try to create an instance through the "new"
   keyword. However, in the Limiton, the number of instances is limited
   by the method setLimit(int).*/

$ep = EasyPeasy::instance('normal'); // Instance 1
$rt = EasyPeasy::instance('log'); // Nothing happens, as we limited the max number
								  // of instances in 1 for this class.

$er = new EasyPeasy(); // Fatal error


Another useful "ton". Let's say we want to work with different instances of a class. For some of them, we want the object to be cached, but not for others. Also, the expiring time is to be different from instance to instance. Now we can solve this problem with Cacheton. For the moment, this script require Memcached class - which means php-memcached extensions must be installed.


require __DIR__ . '/vendor/autoload.php';

class EasyPeasy {

	use \TonTon\Cacheton;

	protected function construct() {

		echo 'Easy Peasy!';
	}
}

/* The Cacheton works like a Multiton. Each new instance receives a tag.
   If no time in seconds is passed, the trait assumes you want the instance
   to be cached for one hour. However, this time can be set as a second
   argument while calling the static method.*/

$ep = EasyPeasy::instance('normal'); // Instantiate the class and sets a cache for 3600 seconds.
$rt = EasyPeasy::instance('timed', 60); // Instantiate the class and sets a cache for 60 seconds

$er = new EasyPeasy(); // Fatal error


Ok, now let's try something more interesting. It's not rare at all to see situations in which devs use Singletons in tandem with some constraints checkings, in the same class. Starting with the obvious, what if we came up with a Singleton that JUST creates a single instance if requirements are met?

That's exactly what we can do with the Selecton:

require __DIR__ . '/vendor/autoload.php';

class EasyPeasy {

	use \TonTon\Selecton;

	private function __construct() {

		echo 'Easy Peasy!';
	}

}

$constraints = [
	'extensions' => [ // Extension names
		'curl',
		'mbstring'
	],
	'classes' => [ // Class names (with namespaces, if existent)
		'Directory',
		'IteratorIterator'
	]
];

$rt = EasyPeasy::instance($constraints); // If any of the constraints is not met, throws an exception

$er = new EasyPeasy(); // Fatal error

For more information send a message to info at phpclasses dot org.